Mothers raised 2 to 5 years old tend to have the largest litters. Despite the age of the prey, the first 2 litters will generally be smaller than the later ones. According to a Royal Canin article, third and fourth pregnancies are generally the largest. The age of the male father also influences the size of the litter.
However, it is possible that the more times you mate, the more puppies you will have. This is because sometimes the eggs don't release all at once. So if you mate early in the cycle, not all eggs may be present. Some could then be fertilized and more could be fertilized by later mating.
A typical Golden Retriever litter can have four to 12 puppies. Usually, the first litter of a female Golden Retriever is smaller than the later litters. Determining litter size can help breeders know if the mother dog has given birth to all puppies and recognize early signs of possible complications, such as large puppies that may be difficult to transmit. According to the American Kennel Club, dog mothers give birth to larger litters in spring and smaller litters in summer.
The number of puppies your mother will have is not just a coincidence, depending on how the stars are aligned on the day of mating. Secondly, knowing the number of litters beforehand can help reputable breeders determine how many puppies will go to their new homes. Dachshunds usually have 1 to 6 puppies per litter, but they may have more depending on the size of the dog. As your mother ages, you should expect a decrease in the number of puppies being born compared to a younger dog.
However, keep in mind that some small breeds can still produce large litters; the Pekingese, for example, can produce up to 10 puppies in a litter. Puppies in the same litter may vary, some are larger than others and there may also be color variations. The number of puppies a dog can have in a litter doesn't really depend on how many times the dog mates. However, if your dog was paired by two different parents of the same breed, you may not realize that the litter contains a mixture of DNA, unless you have seen that both pairings take place or that they were planned.
Many dogs have litters that fall outside this range; some dogs only give birth to a single puppy and others are known to give birth to more than 20 puppies. Rather, you are in control of several factors responsible for the size of the dog litter, but you may not know it. However, the number of puppies a given dog mom will have depends on a variety of things, including their breed, age, and general health status. Most of the time matings are very controlled affairs as breeders are aware of the fertile period of their female dogs and only allow them to mate with the male stallion of their choice.
The reality, of course, is that litters are much smaller and that it is even possible for dogs to have a litter of only one puppy.