Normal litter size can range from 1 to 12 puppies, with 5-6 puppies on average across all dogs. Typical litter size tends to range from 1 to 12 puppies, with an average of 5 to 6 puppies in all dogs. However, large breeds can have up to 15 offspring. It's a wide range and depends on your dog's species, size, health, and pregnancy history.
But just as each dog breed differs in size, function and personality, they also differ when it comes to litter size, according to AKC registration data. You can't put two parents who previously produced large litters and expect puppies to produce large litters two years later as well. Although the results are relative, it clearly shows that the more inbred the puppies, the lower the puppy count. Breeding in limited genetic groups, such as dogs that come from smaller breeding groups where genetic diversity is very limited, is known to produce a (much) smaller litter size of puppies.
About 30% of pedigree puppies die in their first few weeks of life, and only about half of them die from identifiable causes. As your mother ages, you should expect a decrease in the number of puppies being born compared to a younger dog. Determining litter size can help breeders know if the mother dog has given birth to all puppies and recognize early signs of possible complications, such as large puppies that may be difficult to transmit. In general, large dogs have larger litters because, biologically, they can safely carry more puppies.
However, keep in mind that some small breeds can still produce large litters; the Pekingese, for example, can produce up to 10 puppies in a litter. When your dog has been pregnant for about 25 days, you will be asked to have an ultrasound that will allow the veterinarian to count the number of puppies. Also having mating at the end of the fruiting period of the female dog and not from the beginning is a factor that leads to having more puppies. Let's say that for your breed the average litter size is between 8 and 12 puppies, some breeders want to help their mother reach 11, 12 or even 13 puppies.
The number of puppies your mother will have is not just a coincidence, depending on how the stars are aligned on the day of mating. This first litter is the smallest it's not true, my first dorado had 10 beautiful healthy puppies 20 years ago and 3 her last offspring. If they are about the same size, cubs generally end up around the size of their mother and males generally end up closer to the size of the male father.